Hudson Bay – inland Canadian sea neighbors to the Gulf of Foxe on the north is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson Strait. In the south it creates a James Bay. Hudson Bay is the mouth of many large rivers, such as Albany, Attawapiskat, Severn, Nelson and Churchill. The average annual flow of those rivers is estimated at 150-160 km3. Hudson Bay is covered with Ice by over 8 months in the year.
Temperature of surface water varies depending on the season and is in January from minus 19° C in the southern part of the Gulf of James to minus 32° C in the north of Hudson Bay. In July ranges respectively from plus 3° C to plus 17° C. The average surface salinity varies from 23 ‰ in the southwest up to 30 ‰ in the northern part.
Hudson Bay area iti is approximately 819,000 km2 with an average depth of 100m, maximum depth of 274m. It has great importance as a transport route. On the shores many ports has developed, the biggest two are Churchill and Port Nelson. It is also important area for the economy of Canada as in waters of the bay cod, herring, and seals are fished.